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Problems We Found In Chicago's Drinking Water

Problems We Found In Chicago's Drinking Water

Analies Dyjak | Policy Nerd   

For Hydroviv’s assessment of Chicago’s drinking water issues, we aggregated water quality test data provided by the City of Chicago, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and supplemental health information. We cross referenced the city’s water quality test data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature. The water filters that we sell at Hydroviv are optimized to filter out contaminants that are found in Chicago’s drinking water.

Where Does Chicago Source Its Drinking Water?

Chicago sources its drinking water from Lake Michigan and is treated at two water treatment facilities. The Jardine Water Purification Plant services the northern area of the city and suburbs, and the South Water Purification Plant serves the southern parts of the city and suburbs. Lake Michigan has had a long history of pollution, including a recent lawsuit involving Chromium 6 releases from an abutting steel facility.  

Chromium 6 In Chicago’s Drinking Water

Chicago’s drinking water has some of the highest levels of Chromium 6 among major cities in the U.S. Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is currently unregulated by the EPA. In recent years, Chicago’s tap water has averaged 190 parts per trillion for Chromium 6. This is 9.5 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk, as reported by the California Environmental Protection Agency. Chromium 6 pollution is associated with metal processing, tannery facilities, chromate production, stainless steel welding, and pigment production. The state of California set their own health advisory level because Chromium 6 is not regulated by the federal government. EPA has acknowledged that Chromium 6 is a known human carcinogen through inhalation, but is still determining its cancer potential through ingestion of drinking water. Lung, nasal and sinus cancers are associated with Chromium 6 exposure. Acute respiratory disease, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hepatic, renal, and neurological distress are health effects associated with high levels of Chromium 6 exposure.

Lead In Chicago’s Drinking Water

In recent years, the City of Chicago's water has had serious problems with lead contamination. When corrosion control measures put in place by the municipality fail (like what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. Houses built before 1986 were most likely built with lead service lines, plumbing, and fixtures. Currently, 10% of the samples analyzed by the City of Chicago had lead concentrations over 9.1 parts per billion (ppb). While Chicago is technically in compliance with loose federal regulations, these levels are currently some of the highest in the country. Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Disease Control, and American Academy of Pediatrics all recognize that there is no safe level of lead for children between the ages of 0-5. Lead exposure can cause developmental issues, lowered IQ, and damages to the kidneys and brain. Any threshold of lead concentration is not safe for infants and young children.

Disinfection Byproducts In Chicago’s Drinking Water

Disinfection Byproducts are a category of emerging contaminants which means they have been detected in drinking water but the risk to human health is still unknown. DBPs are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants are routinely added to the water supply to kill bacteria. DBPs are split into two categories: Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and Haloacetic Acids-5 (HAA5). Regulatory agencies have very little knowledge about the adverse health effects of DBPs, and their toxicity. EPA has stated that they have been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. 

Chlorine Makes Chicago Tap Water Taste Bad

Like most other municipalities in the U.S., Chicago injects its water with chlorine to protect against waterborne illness. While not typically considered to be harmful on its own, many people find that removing chlorine from drinking water greatly enhances its taste and odor.   

It’s important to note that only a handful of contaminants are required to be included in annual Consumer Confidence Reports, and that there are hundreds of potentially harmful unregulated contaminants that aren’t accounted for. If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for the city of Chicago’s tap water problems, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com to talk to a Water Nerd on our live chat feature or send us an email at hello@hydroviv.com.

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Problems We Found With Laredo's Drinking Water

Problems We Found With Laredo's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of city of Laredo's water quality, we aggregated water quality test data from the City Of Laredo Utilities Department, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Laredo are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Laredo Drinking Water

Laredo’s drinking water is surface water-based, and comes from the Rio Grande River. There are two water treatment plants that filter and treat water for Laredo customers. The Jefferson Water Treatment Plant has two separate river intakes, pump structures, and related pump units, although one of the pump structures has been permanently closed since 2013. The El Pico Water Treatment Plant is a new facility that commenced operations in 2015. In addition to these treatment plants and associated water storage facilities, Laredo has the option of using Webb County’s Lake Casa Blanca Reservoir in a water emergency.

Arsenic In Laredo Drinking Water

Arsenic is a hazardous heavy metal that can cause cancer and other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water naturally. While the city of Laredo's water quality is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should know that the U.S. EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. Laredo’s most recent tap water quality report listed a highest level detected of 4 parts per billion.  We strongly suggest that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially in homes with children.  

High Levels Of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Laredo Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that are created when chlorine-based disinfectants added to the water supply combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not fully regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Laredo’s tap water has recently had high levels of DBPs, with a 2016 average of 103 parts per billion. The level of trihalomethanes (TTHM) detected in 2016 ranged as high as 147 ppb, which is nearly double the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 80 ppb. This was a violation, as TTHM levels exceeded the MCL in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quarters of 2016. While not a violation, the level of Haloacetic Acids detected also ranged above the MCL of 60 to 83.9 ppb.


Use Of Chlorine In Laredo Tap Water

Like most cities in the United States, Laredo adds chlorine to its water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne illness. While not considered exceedingly harmful, many people find that when they remove the chlorine from their water supply, they quickly notice an improvement in taste and odor. When you choose to filter your tap water, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.  

Laredo made the news in September of 2016 when five schools tested positive for a lack of chlorine in their water supply, prompting the schools to provide students with bottled water until the system was flushed with enough chlorine to ensure safe levels of disinfection.


Still Have Questions About Laredo’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Laredo tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Laredo tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Laredo Water Quality Report Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Problems We Found With Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of Fort Wayne's tap and drinking water, we aggregated water quality test data from Fort Wayne City Utilities and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Fort Wayne are optimized with these drinking water problems in mind.

Source Of Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Fort Wayne’s tap and drinking water is surface water-based and originates in the St. Joseph River. Fort Wayne operates two dams on the St. Joseph River to ensure sufficient water supply during droughty periods, with emergency reserves available from the Hurshtown Reservoir near Grabill. Water is treated and filtered at the Three Rivers Water Filtration Plant before being distributed to consumers.

Lead In Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Lead enters into a Fort Wayne consumer’s tap and drinking water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Fort Wayne found an average of 4.5 parts per billion, with 3 of the 52 samples exceeding the action level of 15 ppb. Both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. Of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA. Fort Wayne’s tap water recently averaged 220 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are 11 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Fort Wayne Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants (added to the water supply to protect it) combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not fully regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Fort Wayne’s city water quality has recently had moderate levels of DBPs, with a recent average of 66.1 parts per billion.

Use Of Chlorine In Fort Wayne Tap Water

Like many cities in the United States, Fort Wayne adds chlorine to the water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. While not considered harmful at low levels, many people find that when they remove the chlorine from their tap water, they notice an improvement in taste and odor. When you choose to filter your Fort Wayne tap water, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.    


Still Have Questions About Fort Wayne’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Fort Wayne tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Fort Wayne tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Fort Wayne Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Hialeah's Drinking Water

Problems We Found With Hialeah's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our Hialeah water quality report, we aggregated water quality test data from the City of Hialeah’s Department of Public Works, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Hialeah are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Hialeah Drinking Water

The city of Hialeah's drinking water is groundwater-sourced, and comes from the Biscayne and Upper Floridan Aquifers. Most of Hialeah’s water is purchased from Miami-Dade County; water pumped from the Biscayne Aquifer is treated at facilities owned and operated by Miami-Dade County before being distributed to Hialeah. The Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant is jointly owned by the City of Hialeah and Miami-Dade County. Water at this plant is pumped from the Upper Floridan Aquifer.

Arsenic In Hialeah Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water.  While the city of Hialeah's water is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should take note that the EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water; the standard is therefore quite high. Hialeah’s most recent tap water quality report listed average arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.8-1.5 parts per billion for Miami-Dade County water, with an average concentration of 1.5 ppb.  We strongly advocate that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.

Lead In Hialeah Drinking Water

Lead enters consumer tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in the city of Hialeah's water found a 90th percentile concentration of 2.1 ppb, with one location (out of 124 sampled) exceeding the Action Level of 15 ppb. Despite the Action Level being set at 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Hialeah Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. The city of Hialeah’s tap water recently averaged 66 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These average levels are 3.3 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Hialeah Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in the city of Hialeah’s tap water had a 2016 local running annual average of 43 parts per billion.

Use Of Chlorine and Chloramine In Hialeah Tap Water

Like most cities in the United States, Hialeah’s Reverse Osmosis plant adds chlorine to its water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. 2016 levels of chlorine, while under the Maximum Residual Disinfect Level of 4.0 ppb, averaged 3.2 ppb, close to the MRDL threshold. While not considered harmful in low concentrations, many people find that removing the chlorine from their water supply results in a taste and odor improvement.

Unlike the Hialeah RO plant, Miami-Dade County’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia.  Chloramine is responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and unlike chlorine this bad taste will not fade if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Hialeah’s Miami-Dade water use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

In 2016, the local running annual average for chloramines was 2.6 ppm and the upper detected range was 4.5 ppm, which is over the MRDL of 4.0 ppm. Based on previous Hialeah local running annual water averages, this is an Maximum Contaminant Level violation.

When you choose to filter your tap water for either chlorine or chloramine, especially with levels as high as those in Hialeah, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.


Still Have Questions About Hialeah’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Hialeah tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Hialeah tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Hialeah Water Quality Report On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Gilbert's Drinking Water

Problems We Found With Gilbert's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our Gilbert water quality report, we aggregated water quality test data from the City of Gilbert’s Water Quality Division, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Gilbert are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Gilbert Drinking Water

Gilbert’s drinking water is both groundwater- and surface water-sourced. Surface water originates from the Salt River Project, with dams and reservoirs located on the Salt River and Verde River watersheds; and from the Central Arizona Project, drawing water from the Colorado River via Lake Havasu in a canal. All surface water is directed to one of Gilbert’s two water treatment plants, either the North Water Treatment Plant or the Santan Vista Water Treatment Plant. The Santan Vista plant is working to double its water production capabilities, which should be finished by early 2018. Groundwater is pumped as needed from 17 wells located throughout Gilbert, with ion exchange or adsorptive media used at some wells to reduce inorganic contaminant concentrations. In 2016, SRP provided 49% of the water used, while groundwater supplied 28% and CAP 23%.

Arsenic In Gilbert Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water. While the city of Gilbert's water report is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should take note that the EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water; the standard is therefore quite high. The city of Gilbert's most recent water report listed average arsenic concentrations ranging from 3.2-9.1 parts per billion, with an average concentration of 6.43 ppb.  Although this is a not an EPA violation, we strongly advocate that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.

Lead In Gilbert Drinking Water

Lead enters consumer tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Gilbert found a 90th percentile concentration of 1.33 ppb, with an upper range limit of 2.9 ppb. While the Action Level is 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Very High Levels Of Chromium 6 In Gilbert Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Gilbert’s tap water recently averaged 5900 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These average levels are a staggering 295 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Gilbert Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in Gilbert’s tap water had a 2016 local running annual average of 48.0089 parts per billion. It should be noted that levels of Total Trihalomethanes ranged as high as 110 ppb, while the EPA’s Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level is only 80 ppb. While over the MRDL, this is not an EPA violation since local running annual averages are used for comparison.

Use Of Chlorine In Gilbert Tap Water

Like most cities in the United States, Gilbert adds chlorine to its water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. While not considered harmful in low concentrations, many people find that removing the chlorine from their water supply results in a taste and odor improvement. When you choose to filter your tap water, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.


Still Have Questions About Gilbert’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Gilbert tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Gilbert tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Gilbert Water Report On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Winston-Salem's Drinking Water

Problems We Found With Winston-Salem's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of Winston-Salem’s tap water quality, we aggregated water quality test data from the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Utility Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Winston-Salem are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Winston-Salem Drinking Water

Winston-Salem’s drinking water is surface water-based, with water coming from both the Yadkin River and from Salem Lake. Water is treated at one of the three water treatment facilities operated by the City/County Utility Commission.

Lead In Winston-Salem Drinking Water

Lead enters consumer tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach toxic levels. A recent Winston-Salem water quality analysis for lead in found a 90th percentile concentration of 51 sampled sites of less than 3 parts per billion. While the Action Level is 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. And of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured in an individual home’s tap.

Chromium 6 In Winston-Salem Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Winston-Salem’s tap water quality recently averaged 52 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These average levels are 2.6 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Winston-Salem Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in Winston-Salem’s tap water had a 2016 local running annual average of 78.6 parts per billion. Consumers may be interested to know that levels of Total Trihalomethanes ranged as high as 120.1 ppb, while the EPA’s Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level is only 80 ppb. Although these upper range values are well above the MRDL, this is not an EPA violation, since local running annual averages are used for comparison.

Use Of Chlorine In Winston-Salem Tap Water

Like most cities in the United States, Winston-Salem adds chlorine to its water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. While not considered harmful at low levels, many people find that removing the chlorine from their water supply results in a taste and odor improvement. When you choose to filter your tap water, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.


Still Have Questions About Winston-Salem’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Winston-Salem’s tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Winston-Salem tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Winston-Salem Water Report On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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