Water Quality by City | Drinking Water Quality Reports – Tagged "arsenic" – Hydroviv

Problems We Found In McAllen's Drinking Water

Kezia Snipe | Hydroviv Research Analyst


For Hydroviv’s assessment of tap water in McAllen, TX, we aggregated water quality test data from McAllen Public Utility, the city’s water provider and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and delve into upcoming regulatory changes.  The water filters that we offer at Hydroviv are optimized with these numbers in mind.

Sources Of McAllen Drinking Water

The sources of drinking water used by McAllen Public Utility are Surface Water and Ground Water. Water is received from the Falcon and Amistad Dams, located in Starr and Val Verde Counties, respectively. The water is transferred from the Rio Grande River by irrigation districts into reservoirs. 

Arsenic In McAllen Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic metal that is known to cause cancer and other health issues. Unlike lead, which distributes into water from plumbing, arsenic comes from the source water itself. McAllen is in compliance with the EPA’s water quality standards but it’s important to point out that EPA’s standard balances the toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. The city’s most recent tap water quality report reported an average arsenic concentration up to 3 parts per billion. Hydroviv recommends that anyone with more than 1 part per billion take steps to remove arsenic from their water, especially if they have children.  

Chromium 6 Levels In McAllen Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not currently regulated by the EPA.  In recent years, the city’s tap water has averaged 7 parts per trillion for Chromium 6.  These levels are well within compliance with federal standards but do carry risks of having negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In McAllen Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, the EPA has admitted that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Still Have Questions About McAllen Drinking Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water.  The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for McAllen, but all of our our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants (including lead).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for McAllen tap water, or just have questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople).

Please Share This Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Hialeah's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our Hialeah water quality report, we aggregated water quality test data from the City of Hialeah’s Department of Public Works, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Hialeah are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Hialeah Drinking Water

The city of Hialeah's drinking water is groundwater-sourced, and comes from the Biscayne and Upper Floridan Aquifers. Most of Hialeah’s water is purchased from Miami-Dade County; water pumped from the Biscayne Aquifer is treated at facilities owned and operated by Miami-Dade County before being distributed to Hialeah. The Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant is jointly owned by the City of Hialeah and Miami-Dade County. Water at this plant is pumped from the Upper Floridan Aquifer.

Arsenic In Hialeah Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water.  While the city of Hialeah's water is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should take note that the EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water; the standard is therefore quite high. Hialeah’s most recent tap water quality report listed average arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.8-1.5 parts per billion for Miami-Dade County water, with an average concentration of 1.5 ppb.  We strongly advocate that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.

Lead In Hialeah Drinking Water

Lead enters consumer tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in the city of Hialeah's water found a 90th percentile concentration of 2.1 ppb, with one location (out of 124 sampled) exceeding the Action Level of 15 ppb. Despite the Action Level being set at 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Hialeah Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. The city of Hialeah’s tap water recently averaged 66 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These average levels are 3.3 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Hialeah Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in the city of Hialeah’s tap water had a 2016 local running annual average of 43 parts per billion.

Use Of Chlorine and Chloramine In Hialeah Tap Water

Like most cities in the United States, Hialeah’s Reverse Osmosis plant adds chlorine to its water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. 2016 levels of chlorine, while under the Maximum Residual Disinfect Level of 4.0 ppb, averaged 3.2 ppb, close to the MRDL threshold. While not considered harmful in low concentrations, many people find that removing the chlorine from their water supply results in a taste and odor improvement.

Unlike the Hialeah RO plant, Miami-Dade County’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia.  Chloramine is responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and unlike chlorine this bad taste will not fade if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Hialeah’s Miami-Dade water use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

In 2016, the local running annual average for chloramines was 2.6 ppm and the upper detected range was 4.5 ppm, which is over the MRDL of 4.0 ppm. Based on previous Hialeah local running annual water averages, this is an Maximum Contaminant Level violation.

When you choose to filter your tap water for either chlorine or chloramine, especially with levels as high as those in Hialeah, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.


Still Have Questions About Hialeah’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Hialeah tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Hialeah tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Hialeah Water Quality Report On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Denver, Colorado Drinking Water

Analies Dyjak, M.A. | Policy Nerd    
Updated July 17, 2019 to include current data 

For our 2019 report of Denver water quality, we collected water quality test data from Denver Water and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We cross reference the city’s water quality data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature. The water filters that we sell at Hydroviv are optimized to filter out contaminants that are found in Denver’s drinking water.

Where Does Denver Source Its Drinking Water?

Denver Water is the water utility provider for the city of Denver, which services 1.4 million residents. Denver’s drinking water is fully supplied from surface water sources. The South Platte River and its tributaries, the Dillon Reservoir, and the other tributaries above the Fraser River are the primary drinking water sources. Denver Water stores water is several mountain reservoirs, which are then sent to one of three treatment plants before being distributed into homes.

Lead in Denver’s Drinking Water

Lead enters tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. 10% of taps test for lead in Denver, had concentrations over 11 parts per billion which is just under the EPA federal action level of 15 parts per billion. To make matters worse, houses built after 1986 were most likely built with lead plumbing and lead fixtures. EPA and CDC both recognize that there is no safe level of lead, especially for children. 

Chromium 6 in Denver’s Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA. The city of Denver recently detected levels of Chromium 6 above the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment public health goal of 20 parts per trillion. The levels of chromium 6 average 37.8 parts per trillion in Denver drinking water. The state of California set their own health advisory level because Chromium 6 is not regulated by the federal government. EPA has acknowledged that Chromium 6 is a known human carcinogen through inhalation, but is still determining its cancer potential through ingestion of drinking water. Lung, nasal and sinus cancers are associated with chromium 6 exposure.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Denver’s Drinking Water

Disinfection Byproducts are a category of emerging contaminants which means they have been detected in drinking water, but the risk to human health is unknown. DBPs are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants are routinely added to the water supply to kill bacteria. EPA regulates two different types of DBPs: Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and Haloacetic Acids-5 (HAA5). Regulatory agencies have very little knowledge about the adverse health effects of DBPs, and their toxicity. EPA has however acknowledged their link to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. 

Chloramine in Denver’s Tap Water

Denver's drinking water is disinfected with Chloramine, which is being more broadly used over chlorine in water treatment facilities. Chloramine is primarily responsible for what customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine this taste will not fade if left in the fridge overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Denver use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

It’s important to note that only a handful of contaminants are required to be included in annual Consumer Confidence Reports, and that there are hundreds of potentially harmful unregulated contaminants that aren’t accounted for. If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Denver’s tap water feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com to talk to a Water Nerd on our live chat feature or send us an email at hello@hydroviv.com.

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Problems We Found In Irvine, California Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated July 19, 2019 to include current data

Our Water Nerds have updated our assessment of Irvine drinking water to include the most recent available data. We used information from the Irvine Ranch Water District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. Our team then cross references these  water data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Irvine are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Irvine Drinking Water

Irvine's drinking and tap water is a mix of groundwater - and imported surface water-based. 65% of the water supply is groundwater that comes from the Orange County Groundwater Basin. Additional groundwater is also obtained from the Cleveland National Forest from the Harding Canyon Dam watershed, the State Water Project and the Colorado River. 

Arsenic In Irvine Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic heavy metal that can cause cancer and other health problems. Arsenic originates naturally in source water. Although Irvine's water quality is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should know that the U.S. EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. Irvine’s most recent tap water quality report listed a highest level detected of 3.6 parts per billion, with a local treated groundwater average of less than 2 ppb.  We strongly suggest that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially in homes with children.  

Lead In Irvine Drinking Water

Lead enters into a consumer’s tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water and can reach hazardous levels. Recent analysis for lead in Irvine's tap water found a 90th percentile concentration of less than 5 parts per billion. While the Action Level is 15 parts per billion, the EPACDC and American Academy of Pediatrics all recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. Of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Irvine Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Irvine’s tap water recently averaged 240 parts per trillion for chromium 6, with samples ranging up to 720 ppt. Average levels are 12 times higher (with the upper range 36 times higher) than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Irvine Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that are created when chlorine-based disinfectants added to the water supply combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not fully regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Irvine’s tap water had a 2016 average tested across twelve locations of 57 parts per billion, ranging as high as 58 ppb. This is well within the Maximum Contaminant Levels for Total Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids.

Use Of Chloramine In Irvine Tap Water

While many cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Irvine’s water is disinfected with chloramine, made by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is the frequent problem when customers report a “bad taste” in their tap water, and unlike chlorine will not fade away if left in the fridge overnight. The recent chloramine residual for Irvine was 1.9 parts per million, with samples ranging as high as 11 ppm; while not a violation, this amount exceeds the maximum residual disinfectant level of 4.0 ppm. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that don’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Irvine use special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

Still Have Questions About Irvine’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water. The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Irvine tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Irvine tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Irvine Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Houston's Drinking Water

Analies Dyjak | Policy Nerd 
Updated July 17, 2019 to include current data

For Hydroviv’s report of Houston, we aggregated water quality test data from the City of Houston Public Works and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that our scientists build for our users in Houston are optimized with the following drinking water quality issues in the forefront of our mind.

Source Of Houston Drinking Water

Houston receives its drinking water from three water purification plants and 40 groundwater plants. 16 additional groundwater plants provide water for the remaining 5 Houston systems.

Arsenic Concentrations In Houston Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic heavy metal that is known to cause cancer and other health issues. Unlike lead, which distributes into water from plumbing, arsenic comes from the source water itself. The highest detected concentration of arsenic in Houston's main system was 11 parts per billion. While the average of 2 parts per billion is within EPA's regulated threshold, these levels triggered the municipality to make the following disclosure in the Consumer Confidence Report:

"Houston’s drinking water contains low levels of arsenic, but is below the state and federal action levels. EPA’s standard balances arsenic’s possible health effects against the costs of removing it from drinking water. EPA continues to research the health effects of low levels of arsenic, which is a mineral known to cause cancer in humans at high concentrations and is linked to other health effects such as skin damage and circulatory problems."

Hydroviv strongly recommends that anyone that lives in an area with more than 1 part per billion take steps to remove arsenic from their water, especially families with children.  

Lead Levels In Houston Drinking Water

Lead enters tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When lead pipes, fittings, and valves are present in a home, lead can leach into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. In the most recent data provided by the City of Houston, 10% of samples analyzed for lead in Houston are 4 parts per billion. Though the city is currently in compliance with extremely loose federal regulations, the EPA and CDC have both acknowledged that there is no safe level of lead for children. Additionally, the American Academy Of Pediatrics strongly urges any tap that produces water over 1 part per billion be addressed. 

Very High Chromium 6 Levels In Houston Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is an extremely toxic metal that is not currently regulated by the EPA. In recent years, Houston tap water has averaged 747 parts per trillion for Chromium 6. For the sake of perspective, these levels are 35 times higher than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk. Earlier this year, Dr. Eric Roy (Hydroviv's Founder) wrote a highly-cited article specifically on the high levels of chromium 6 in Houston's tap water, the original source can be viewed here.  

Pesticides And Petroleum Hydrocarbons Detected In Houston's Most Recent Round Of Testing 

Low levels of the herbicides atrazine and simazine (both endocrine disruptors), as well as xylenes (a petroleum based VOC) were reported in Houston's main system. 

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Houston Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, the EPA's website discloses that exposure to high levels of these chemicals is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Chlorine Levels In Houston Tap Water

Like most other cities in the U.S., Houston disinfects its water with chlorine to protect against waterborne illness. While not considered to be harmful on its own at levels found in tap water, people tend to find that filtering it from their water greatly enhances its taste and odor.  

Still Have Questions About Houston Tap Water Or Water Quality In General?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses tap water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water. The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for Houston, but our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants found in Houston's tap water.

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Houston's water, or have questions about our Houston water quality report, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook. We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on tap water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople on staff).

Please Share This Houston Water Quality Report Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Mesa's Drinking Water

Kezia Snipe | Hydroviv Research Analyst


For Hydroviv’s City of Mesa, AZ Water Report we aggregated water quality test data from Mesa Water Resources, the city’s water provider and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and delve into upcoming regulatory changes.  The water filters that we offer at Hydroviv are optimized with these numbers in mind.

Sources Of Mesa Drinking Water

Mesa relies on two sources for its drinking water: surface water and groundwater wells. Salt and Verde River water from the Salt River Project (SRP) supplies water delivered in the City Zone. Colorado River water delivered through the Central Arizona Project (CAP) provides water delivered in the Eastern Zones. 16 deep aquifer wells supply drinking water throughout the City Zone. 14 deep aquifer wells supply drinking water throughout a wide area in Mesa’s Eastern Zones.   

Arsenic In Mesa Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic metal that is known to cause cancer and other health issues. Unlike lead, which distributes into water from plumbing, arsenic comes from the source water itself. Mesa's water quality is in compliance with the EPA’s water quality standards but it’s important to point out that EPA’s standard balances the toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. The city’s most recent tap water quality report reported an average arsenic concentration up to 4.4 parts per billion. Hydroviv recommends that anyone with more than 1 part per billion take steps to remove arsenic from their water, especially if they have children.  

Lead In Mesa Drinking Water

Lead enters tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures put in place by the municipality fail (like what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. Currently,10% of samples analyzed for lead in Mesa, AZ's water are 4.3 parts per billion. Though Mesa's water quality is in compliance with federal regulations, EPA and CDC both acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead, and federal regulations do not take into account levels measured at an individual tap. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that any taps used to serve children have lead levels no higher than 1 part per billion.

Extremely High Chromium 6 Levels In Mesa Drinking Water

Mesa's water quality has one of the highest levels of Chromium 6 in its' tap water in the entire country. Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not currently regulated by the EPA.  In recent years, the city’s tap water has averaged 5600 parts per trillion for Chromium 6.  For a bit of perspective, these levels are 280 times HIGHER than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Mesa Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, the EPA has admitted that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Still Have Questions About Mesa Drinking Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water.  The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for Mesa, AZ's water, but all of our our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants (including lead).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Mesa tap water, or just have questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople).

Please Share This City of Mesa Water Report Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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