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Problems We Found With Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of Fort Wayne's tap and drinking water, we aggregated water quality test data from Fort Wayne City Utilities and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Fort Wayne are optimized with these drinking water problems in mind.

Source Of Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Fort Wayne’s tap and drinking water is surface water-based and originates in the St. Joseph River. Fort Wayne operates two dams on the St. Joseph River to ensure sufficient water supply during droughty periods, with emergency reserves available from the Hurshtown Reservoir near Grabill. Water is treated and filtered at the Three Rivers Water Filtration Plant before being distributed to consumers.

Lead In Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Lead enters into a Fort Wayne consumer’s tap and drinking water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Fort Wayne found an average of 4.5 parts per billion, with 3 of the 52 samples exceeding the action level of 15 ppb. Both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. Of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Fort Wayne Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA. Fort Wayne’s tap water recently averaged 220 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are 11 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Fort Wayne Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants (added to the water supply to protect it) combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not fully regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Fort Wayne’s city water quality has recently had moderate levels of DBPs, with a recent average of 66.1 parts per billion.

Use Of Chlorine In Fort Wayne Tap Water

Like many cities in the United States, Fort Wayne adds chlorine to the water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. While not considered harmful at low levels, many people find that when they remove the chlorine from their tap water, they notice an improvement in taste and odor. When you choose to filter your Fort Wayne tap water, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.    


Still Have Questions About Fort Wayne’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Fort Wayne tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Fort Wayne tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Fort Wayne Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Hialeah's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our Hialeah water quality report, we aggregated water quality test data from the City of Hialeah’s Department of Public Works, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Hialeah are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Hialeah Drinking Water

The city of Hialeah's drinking water is groundwater-sourced, and comes from the Biscayne and Upper Floridan Aquifers. Most of Hialeah’s water is purchased from Miami-Dade County; water pumped from the Biscayne Aquifer is treated at facilities owned and operated by Miami-Dade County before being distributed to Hialeah. The Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant is jointly owned by the City of Hialeah and Miami-Dade County. Water at this plant is pumped from the Upper Floridan Aquifer.

Arsenic In Hialeah Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water.  While the city of Hialeah's water is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should take note that the EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water; the standard is therefore quite high. Hialeah’s most recent tap water quality report listed average arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.8-1.5 parts per billion for Miami-Dade County water, with an average concentration of 1.5 ppb.  We strongly advocate that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.

Lead In Hialeah Drinking Water

Lead enters consumer tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in the city of Hialeah's water found a 90th percentile concentration of 2.1 ppb, with one location (out of 124 sampled) exceeding the Action Level of 15 ppb. Despite the Action Level being set at 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Hialeah Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. The city of Hialeah’s tap water recently averaged 66 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These average levels are 3.3 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Hialeah Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in the city of Hialeah’s tap water had a 2016 local running annual average of 43 parts per billion.

Use Of Chlorine and Chloramine In Hialeah Tap Water

Like most cities in the United States, Hialeah’s Reverse Osmosis plant adds chlorine to its water supply to keep consumers safe from waterborne pathogens. 2016 levels of chlorine, while under the Maximum Residual Disinfect Level of 4.0 ppb, averaged 3.2 ppb, close to the MRDL threshold. While not considered harmful in low concentrations, many people find that removing the chlorine from their water supply results in a taste and odor improvement.

Unlike the Hialeah RO plant, Miami-Dade County’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia.  Chloramine is responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and unlike chlorine this bad taste will not fade if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Hialeah’s Miami-Dade water use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

In 2016, the local running annual average for chloramines was 2.6 ppm and the upper detected range was 4.5 ppm, which is over the MRDL of 4.0 ppm. Based on previous Hialeah local running annual water averages, this is an Maximum Contaminant Level violation.

When you choose to filter your tap water for either chlorine or chloramine, especially with levels as high as those in Hialeah, we believe you will notice an immediate taste enhancement.


Still Have Questions About Hialeah’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Hialeah tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Hialeah tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Hialeah Water Quality Report On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Chesapeake Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our Chesapeake water quality report, we aggregated water quality test data from the City of Chesapeake Department of Public Utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Chesapeake are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Chesapeake Drinking Water

The city of Chesapeake’s drinking water is of mixed-source origin and comes from several locations. Chesapeake’s Northwest River Water Treatment Plant treats surface water from the Northwest River, as well as brackish groundwater from four wells. The Lake Gaston Water Treatment Plant treats raw water purchased from the city of Norfolk, and plans to treat surface water from Lake Gaston in the future. Treated water is purchased for some portions of Chesapeake from Norfolk and Portsmouth. Additional groundwater comes from the Western Branch wells, including Wells #1 and #3, and the Aquifer Storage and Recovery Well. Lastly, the private company Aqua Virginia, Inc. serves approximately 523 customers in the Norfolk Highlands neighborhood of Chesapeake.

Lead In Chesapeake Drinking Water

Lead enters into the city of Chesapeake's tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as seen in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach hazardous levels. Recent analysis for lead in Chesapeake's water found 90th percentile concentrations of 2 parts per billion for water purchased from Portsmouth, with levels as high as 14.6 ppb detected. While water treated at Chesapeake’s treatment plants had 90th percentile concentrations at undetectable levels, levels ranged as high as 15.2 ppb. These are not violations, since the 90th percentile concentrations are the levels used to compare with the EPA standard (with an Action Level of 15 ppb), but both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Chesapeake Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Chesapeake tap water quality from the two water treatment plants recently topped out at 90 parts per trillion for chromium 6; values ranged as high as 60 ppt for South Norfolk, and 380 ppt for those in the Western Branch area. These levels are 4.5, 3, and 19 times higher, respectively, than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Chesapeake Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  While these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated they have an association with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in Chesapeake’s tap water had highest locational running annual averages of 62 ppb for their treatment plants (with upper detected levels of 84 ppb), 108 ppb for Norfolk water (upper detected levels of 150 ppb), and 83 ppb for Portsmouth water (upper detected levels of 121 ppb). While not a violation, Norfolk water samples ranged as high as the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 80 ppb for Total Trihalomethanes, and higher than the MCL of 60 ppb for Haloacetic Acids.

Use Of Chloramine In Chesapeake Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, the city of Chesapeake's water (from all sources) is disinfected with chloramine, produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia.  Chloramine is primarily responsible for what customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine this taste will not fade if water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Chesapeake use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

In 2016, the running annual average for chloramines was 3.24 ppm for water from the two treatment plants, and the upper detected range was 4.26 ppm, which is over the Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level of 4.0 ppm. For Norfolk water, the running annual average was 2.79 ppm (upper range of 4.4 ppm), and for Portsmouth water, the running annual average was 2.08 ppm (upper range of 4.0 ppm). It is important to note that while these upper ranges are above the MRDL, this is not a violation, as it is the running annual average values that are compared to the MRDL.


Still Have Questions About Chesapeake’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Chesapeake tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Chesapeake tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Chesapeake Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Denver's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of Denver's tap water quality, we aggregated water quality test data from Denver Water and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Denver are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Denver Drinking Water

Denver's drinking and tap water is surface water-sourced, and originates from 4,000 square miles on both sides of the Continental Divide. Water sources include the South Platte River, its tributaries, streams feeding into Dillon Reservoir, and creeks and canals above the Fraser River. Five reservoirs in the mountains are used to store Denver's drinking water; water may be stored at Antero, Eleven Mile Canyon, Cheesman, Dillon, or Gross Reservoirs. Water is then transported to one of three treatment plants, the Moffat Treatment Plant, Marston Treatment Plant, or Foothills Treatment Plant, before being delivered to Denver customers.

Lead In Denver Drinking Water

Lead enters into Denver consumer's tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently occurred in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Denver's tap water found an average of 10 parts per billion, with 13 of the 356 samples exceeding the action level of 15 ppb in autumn of 2016. Both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Denver Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA. Denver's tap water quality recently averaged 60 parts per trillion for chromium 6, with upper monitored levels of 250 ppt. These levels are 3 and 12.5 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Denver Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants formed when chlorine-based disinfectants, which are routinely added to the water supply to protect it, combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not fully regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Denver’s tap water has recently had moderately low levels of DBPs, with a recent average of 44 parts per billion.

Use Of Chloramine In Denver Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, Denver's water is disinfected with chloramine, produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia.  Chloramine is primarily responsible for what customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine this taste will not fade if left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Denver's water quality use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Denver’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Denver tap water, but all of our home water filtration systems provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Denver tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Denver Drinking Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Irvine's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of Irvine's water quality, we aggregated water quality test data from the Irvine Ranch Water District, the water provider for Irvine, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these Irvine water data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Irvine are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Irvine Drinking Water

Irvine's drinking and tap water is a mix of groundwater- and imported surface water-based. 65% of the water supply is groundwater that comes from the Orange County Groundwater Basin, managed by the Orange County Water District. Water is pumped from a natural underground reservoir that reaches from the Prado Dam across northwestern Orange County. Additional groundwater originates in the Cleveland National Forest from the Harding Canyon Dam watershed. Roughly 35% of Irvine’s water is supplied by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, imported from the Colorado River (and transported via the Colorado River Aqueduct), and from northern California (via the State Water Project).

Arsenic In Irvine Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic heavy metal that can cause cancer and other health problems. Arsenic originates naturally in source water. Although Irvine's water quality is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should know that the U.S. EPA's standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. Irvine’s most recent tap water quality report listed a highest level detected of 3.6 parts per billion, with a local treated groundwater average of less than 2 ppb.  We strongly suggest that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially in homes with children.  

Lead In Irvine Drinking Water

Lead enters into a consumer’s tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water and can reach hazardous levels. Recent analysis for lead in Irvine's tap water found a 90th percentile concentration of less than 5 ppb, with lead being found in 2 homes. While the Action Level is 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead. Of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Irvine Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Irvine’s tap water recently averaged 240 parts per trillion for chromium 6, with samples ranging up to 720 ppt. Average levels are 12 times higher (with the upper range 36 times higher) than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Irvine Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that are created when chlorine-based disinfectants added to the water supply combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not fully regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Irvine’s tap water had a 2016 average tested across twelve locations of 57 parts per billion, ranging as high as 58 ppb. This is well within the Maximum Contaminant Levels for Total Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids.

Use Of Chloramine In Irvine Tap Water

While many cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Irvine’s water is disinfected with chloramine, made by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is the frequent problem when customers report a “bad taste” in their tap water, and unlike chlorine will not fade away if left in the fridge overnight. The recent chloramine residual for Irvine was 1.9 parts per million, with samples ranging as high as 11 ppm; while not a violation, this amount exceeds the maximum residual disinfectant level of 4.0 ppm. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that don’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Irvine use special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Irvine’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Irvine tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Irvine tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Irvine Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Houston's Drinking Water

Analies Dyjak | Policy Nerd 

For Hydroviv’s 2018 water quality assessment of Houston, Texas, we collected water quality test data from the city’s website and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We cross referenced Houston’s water quality data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature. The water filters that we sell at Hydroviv are optimized to filter out contaminants that are found in Houston’s drinking water.

Where Does Houston Source Its Drinking Water?

The City of Houston has 6 different treatment plants that make up its network of public water systems. The largest of these systems treats and distributes 446 million gallons of water to 2.3 million customers everyday. 88% of the water treated at the main system is surface water from the San Jacinto and Trinity rivers. The remaining 12% is from 104 groundwater wells that draw water from the Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The 5 remaining treatment systems draw water from the same aquifers in addition to purchased water from the city of Humble.

Chromium 6 In Houston’s Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is currently unregulated by the EPA. In recent years, Houston has had a major problem with this dangerous contaminant. Chromium 6 pollution is associated with metal processing, tannery facilities, chromate production, stainless steel welding, and pigment production. This years Houston drinking water quality report detected levels of Chromium 6 as high as 6.7 parts per billion, and averaged concentrations of 0.7 parts per billion. These concentrations are up to 335 times higher than the concentration determine to have a negligible impact on cancer risk. EPA has acknowledged that Chromium 6 is a known human carcinogen through inhalation, but is still determining its cancer potential through ingestion of drinking water. Lung, nasal and sinus cancers are associated with Chromium 6 exposure. Ingestion of extremely high doses of chromium 6 compounds can cause acute respiratory disease, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hepatic, renal, and neurological distress which may result in death.

Arsenic In Houston's Drinking Water 

Arsenic is a heavy metal that typically leaches into groundwater as surrounding bedrock naturally weathers overtime. The concentrations of Arsenic in Houston’s tap water were detected as high as 5.7 parts per billion, and averaged 1.9 parts per billion. The federal Maximum Contaminant Level for Arsenic in drinking water is 10 parts per billion, but regulatory agencies acknowledge that this level should be reduced to 1 or even 0 parts per billion. Arsenic is a toxic substance that is linked to a long list of health problems in humans. For example, arsenic can cause a number of different cancers (e.g. skin, bladder, lung, liver, prostate), as well as create non-cancerous problems with cardiovascular (heart/blood vessels), pulmonary (lungs), immune, neurological (brain), and endocrine (e.g. diabetes) systems. Hydroviv recommends purchasing a filter that is optimized to remove Arsenic from your drinking water, especially if you’re serviced by a private well. 

It’s important to note that only a handful of contaminants are required to be included in annual Consumer Confidence Reports, and that there are hundreds of potentially harmful unregulated contaminants that aren’t accounted for. If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Houston’s tap and drinking water quality, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com to talk to a Water Nerd on our live chat feature or send us an email at hello@hydroviv.com.


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