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Problems We Found In San Francisco, California Drinking Water

Analies Dyjak, M.A. | Hydroviv Research Analyst
Updated August 16, 2019 to include current data

Our Water Nerds have updated our water quality assessment for San Francisco drinking water. We used the most recent 2019 test data from San Francisco Water, Power & Sewer, the city’s water provider and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and delve into upcoming regulatory changes. The custom water filters that we offer at Hydroviv are optimized with San Francisco's water quality in mind.

Source Of San Francisco Drinking Water

San Francisco source water originates from the Tuolmne River, and is stored in the Hetch Hecthy Reservoir. Water from the Hetch Hetchy is supplemented with water from local watersheds such as the Alameda, Peninsula, San Andreas, and Pilarcitos reservoirs. Emergency supplies include Lake Eleanor, Lake Cherry and tributaries of the Lower Cherry Aqueduct, Early Intake Reservoir and Tuolumne River.

Lead In San Francisco Drinking Water

Lead enters tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbingWhen corrosion control measures put in place by the municipality fail (like what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. 10% of samples analyzed for lead are 6 parts per billion in San Francisco drinking water. Though in compliance with federal regulations, EPACDC and American Academy of Pediatrics all acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead for children. 

Chromium 6 In San Francisco Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA.  In recent years, San Francisco’s drinking and tap water has averaged 90 parts per trillion for Chromium 6. For a bit of perspective, Chromium 6 levels in San Francisco's tap water quality are 4.55 times higher than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In San Francisco Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter. EPA regulates two categories of DBPs: Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and Haloacetic Acids 5 (HAA5). Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, EPA discloses that high levels of disinfection byproducts are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Chloramine Used To Disinfect San Francisco Drinking Water

While most municipalities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, San Francisco’s water is disinfected with chloramine (produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia). Chloramine is primarily responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine does not dissipate if a container of water is left in the refrigerator overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t do a great job removing chloramine, but the filters that we design and build at Hydroviv for San Francisco uses special filtration media that is purposefully designed to remove chloramine as well.

Still Have Questions?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water.  The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for San Francisco, but all of our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants.

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for San Francisco tap water, have questions about our San Francisco water quality report, or questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople).

Please Share This San Francisco Tap Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Los Angeles Water

Analies Dyjak, M.A. | Research Analyst 
Updated July 16, 2019 to include current data

For Hydroviv’s assessment of Los Angeles tap water, we aggregated water quality test data from Los Angeles Department of Water & Power, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The custom water filters that we offer in Los Angeles are optimized with this research in mind.

Source Water Of Los Angeles Drinking Water

The Los Angeles Aqueducts, local groundwater, and supplemental water purchased from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD) are the primary sources for the City of Los Angeles. LA's tap water from the MWD is delivered through the Colorado River Aqueduct and the State Water Project’s California Aqueduct.

Arsenic In Los Angeles Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic metal that is known to cause cancer and other adverse health issues. Unlike lead, which distributes into water from plumbing, arsenic comes from the source water itself. Arsenic naturally exists in bedrock, and as it weathers overtime, it can leach into surrounding groundwater. It's important to mention that EPA’s standard for arsenic balances the toxicity of the contaminant,  with the costs of removing it. That said, Los Angeles is in compliance with EPA's loose water quality standards. According to the 2019 report, arsenic concentrations averaged 3 parts per billion in Los Angeles drinking water. We highly recommend that anyone with more than 1 part per billion take steps to remove arsenic from their water, especially if they have children.  

High Levels Of Lead In Los Angeles Drinking Water

Lead enters Los Angeles' drinking and tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbingWhen corrosion control measures put in place by the municipality fail (like what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. Currently,10% of LA water quality samples analyzed for lead are over 5.2 parts per billion. While in compliance with very loose federal regulations, EPACDC and American Academy Of Pediatrics all acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead for children. 

High Levels Of Chromium 6 In Los Angeles Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA. According to the most recent report, Chromium 6 levels averaged 1,090 parts per trillion in Los Angeles drinking water. For the sake of perspective, Chromium 6 levels in LA's water quality are 54 times higher than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Los Angeles Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, the EPA website discloses that exposure to high levels of disinfection byproducts are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Still Have Questions About Los Angeles Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water. The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for Los Angeles, but our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants.

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for LA tap water, or just have questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople).

Please Share This Los Angeles Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Lincoln's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of the city of Lincoln' water quality, we aggregated water quality test data from Lincoln Water System, the water provider for Lincoln, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Lincoln are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Lincoln Drinking Water

Lincoln’s tap water is groundwater-sourced from wells under the Platte River near Ashland. This water is directly influenced by the surface water above. A water treatment plant is located in Ashland, which treats the water before sending it on to customers in Lincoln. There are additional wells located in Lincoln, but water has not been pumped from them during the 2011-2016 period.

Arsenic In Lincoln Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water.  While the city of Lincoln' water quality is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should take note that the EPA standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water; the standard is therefore quite high. Lincoln’s most recent tap water quality report listed arsenic concentrations ranging from 6.7-7.8 parts per billion.  We strongly advocate that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.  

Very High Levels Of Lead In Lincoln Drinking Water

Lead enters into tap water through aging lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail, such as in Flint, Michigan, lead leaches into drinking water and reaches toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Lincoln NE water quality found a 90th percentile concentration of 4.41 parts per billion, with samples ranging up to a staggering 403 ppb. The Action Level for lead, for reference, is 15 ppb. EPA and CDC have stated that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead, and of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.  For perspective, the American Academy Of Pediatrics recommends that children not drink from taps with lead levels over 1 ppb.

Chromium 6 In Lincoln Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a hazardous metal not fully regulated by the EPA. Lincoln’s tap water recently averaged 39 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are nearly 2 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Lincoln Drinking Water

DBPs are a kind of emerging contaminants that are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants (added to the water supply to keep it safe) then combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not well regulated, EPA has explicitly stated that they have been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Lincoln’s tap water has recently found DBPs averaging 49.5 parts per billion.

Use Of Chloramine In Lincoln Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Lincoln’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is made by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is the frequent culprit for what customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine will not dissipate if left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that don’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Lincoln use special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Lincoln's Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Lincoln tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Lincoln tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Lincoln NE Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found in Glendale's Drinking Water

Kezia Snipe | Hydroviv Research Analyst

For Hydroviv’s city of Glendale water quality assessment, we aggregated water quality test data from City of Glendale Water and Power, the city’s water provider, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes.  The water filters that we build for people who live in Glendale are optimized with these figures in mind.

Source Of Glendale Drinking Water

In 2016, 65% of Glendale’s water was purchased from the Metropolitan Water District, after being imported and treated from Northern California and the Colorado River. The remaining 35% comes from local groundwater sources extracted from the Verdugo and San Fernando Basins. In addition, 7% of total water used in 2016 was recycled water delivered by the Los Angeles-Glendale Water Reclamation Plant, though this water is only used for irrigation and industrial purposes.

Arsenic In Glendale Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic heavy metal that is known to cause cancer and other health issues. Unlike lead, which distributes into water from plumbing, arsenic comes from the source water itself. While the city of Glendale's water quality is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, it’s important to point out that EPA’s standard balances the toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. The most recent City of Glendale water report revealed that the water from the Jensen plant had average arsenic levels of 3.1 parts per billion, while the Glendale Treatment Plant had up to 1.6 parts per billion. We recommend that anyone with more than 1 part per billion take steps to remove arsenic from their water, especially if there are children in the home.

Extremely High Chromium 6 Levels In Glendale Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not currently regulated by the EPA, and is only loosely regulated at the state level.  In the most recent water quality data, the Glendale Treatment Plant averaged 5300 parts per trillion of chromium 6, with a maximum measured concentration of 6400 parts per trillion.  To put it in perspective, these levels are 265 and 320 times higher than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Glendale Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, the EPA website discloses that high levels of disinfection byproducts in drinking water are are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. 

Still Have Questions About Glendale Tap Water Or Water Quality In General?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water.  The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for Glendale, but our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants found in Glendale's tap water, including VOCs, pesticides, lead, and mercury.

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Glendale's water, or just have questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople on staff).

Please Share This City of Glendale Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Anchorage Drinking Water

Emma Schultz M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our Anchorage water quality assessment, we aggregated water quality test data from the Anchorage Water & Wastewater Utility, the water provider for Anchorage, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Anchorage are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Anchorage Drinking Water

Anchorage tap water comes from both ground and surface waters. Eklutna Lake, which is surrounded by the snowfields and glaciers of Chugach State Park, accounts for approximately 84% of the water that Anchorage customers receive. Supplementary surface water comes from Ship Creek, much of which is also in Chugach State Park. Ancillary groundwater (12% of the supply in 2016) comes from ten wells in Anchorage and Chugiak-Eagle River, which pump from aquifers that are also recharged by the runoff and snowmelt from the Chugach Mountains.

Lead In Anchorage Drinking Water

Lead enters into a customer’s tap water through lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and reaches toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Anchorage found a 90th percentile concentration of 1.4 parts per billion. Of the 52 sites sampled, one site exceeded the set Action Level of 15 ppb. Follow up with the residence in question found a diminished value in lead concentration after a system flush. While Anchorage's tap water is in compliance with all federal regulations, both the EPA and CDC acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly account for levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Anchorage Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal not currently regulated by the EPA.  Anchorage tap water has recently averaged a substantial 580 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are 28 times higher than the minimum concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Anchorage Drinking Water

DBPs are emerging contaminants that are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants are added to the water supply, and later combine with naturally-occurring organic matter.  These chemicals are not well-regulated, but the EPA has stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Anchorage tap water has recently had somewhat high levels of DBPs, with a 2016 average of 55.9 parts per billion (more of which comes from trihalomethanes than from haloacetic acids).

Use Of Chlorine In Anchorage Tap Water

As with much of the United States, Anchorage adds chlorine to its water to protect its consumers against waterborne illness. While not considered overtly harmful, many people find that removing chlorine from their drinking water greatly improves their overall taste and odor.  When you choose to filter your tap water, we expect that you will notice an immediate improvement in taste.  

 

Still Have Questions About Anchorage Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Anchorage tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Anchorage tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Anchorage Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

 

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Problems We Found In Lexington, Kentucky Drinking Water

Emma Schultz M.S. | Scientific Contributor
Updated July 31, 2019 to include current data

We've updated our assessment of Lexington drinking water to include the most current data. Our Water Nerds aggregated water quality test data from Kentucky American Water, the water provider for Lexington, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference contaminant data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Lexington are optimized with these issues in mind.

Lexington's Drinking Water Sources

Lexington tap water is sourced from surface water. Water comes from the Kentucky River where it runs through Owen County south of Lexington, and from the Jacobson Reservoir, which is located in Fayette County.  According to source water assessments, the Kentucky River is most vulnerable to contamination from agricultural runoff, while the Jacobson Reservoir is most vulnerable to urban storm water runoff.

Chromium 6 Levels In Lexington Tap Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not presently regulated by the EPA. Lexington's tap and drinking water quality has recently averaged 76 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are nearly 4 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Lexington Drinking Water

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are halogenated emerging contaminants that occur when chlorine-based disinfectants are added to the water supply and subsequently combine with naturally-occurring organic matter.  These chemicals are not well-regulated, but the EPA has stated that they have been linked to increased risks of bladder cancer, and kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. The highest level detected in Lexington drinking water was 110 parts per billion, which exceeds the 80 part per billion Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) The highest level of haloacetic acids was 54.2 parts per billion, which is just under the MCL of 60 parts per billion. 

Chloramine Is Used To Disinfect Lexington Tap Water

Although most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, Lexington’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is generated by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is often responsible for what customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and, unlike with chlorine, this taste does not dissipate if water is left in the fridge overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t successfully remove the chloramine taste, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Lexington use special filtration media purpose-built to remove chloramine.

Still Have Questions About Lexington Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above (lead) are part of what we take into consideration when we optimize water filters specifically for Lexington tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Lexington tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Lexington Drinking Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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