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Problems We Found In Norfolk, Virginia Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated August 5, 2019 to include current data

For our assessment of Norfolk's tap water quality, our Water Nerds aggregated the most recent water quality test data from the City of Norfolk Department of Utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. Our team cross references these data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Norfolk are optimized with these data in mind. 

Source Of Norfolk Drinking Water

Norfolk’s drinking and tap water is a mixture of surface and groundwater. Water comes from eight reservoirs, with two in Norfolk proper, three in Virginia Beach, two in Suffolk, and one in Isle of Wight. Water also comes from the Blackwater and Nottoway Rivers, and four deep wells in Isle of Wight County. The City of Norfolk Department of Utilities operates two water treatment plants, the 37th Street Treatment Plant and the Moores Bridges Treatment Plant, where water is treated and filtered before being delivered to customers.

Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) In Norfolk Drinking Water

PFAS are a class of chemicals found various non-stick, stain resistent products, as well as fire fighting foam. PFAS are considered to be "emerging contaminants" because they are not currently regulated by EPA, but are known to be toxic and persistent in the environment. PFAS have historically been an ingredient in fire fighting foam, which is why they're often found on or near military bases. Norfolk detected PFAS levels between 73-3,373 parts per trillion, which are upwards of 169 times higher than advisory levels. Hydroviv undersink filters remove PFAS. If you'd like to check out third-party data on our removal rates, send us an email at hello@hydroviv.com

Lead In Norfolk Drinking Water

Lead enters Norfolk consumer's tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Norfolk's water found a 90th percentile concentration of less than 2.5 ppb. While the Action Level is 15 ppb, the EPACDC and American Academy of Pediatrics recognize that there is no safe level of lead for children. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Norfolk Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Norfolk’s tap water recently averaged 46 parts per trillion for chromium 6. Average levels are 2 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Norfolk Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has concluded that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. EPA regulates two categories of DBPs: Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and Haloacetic Acids (HAA5). The average concentration of TTHMs in Norfolk drinking water are 45 parts per billion. The average concentration of HAA5 in Norfolk drinking water is 30 parts per billion. For a bit of context, the Maximum Contaminant Level for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion, and 60 parts per billion for HAA5.

Use Of Chloramine In Norfolk Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Norfolk’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia.  Chloramine is primarily responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and unlike chlorine will not dissipate if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t do a great job removing chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Norfolk uses special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Norfolk’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Norfolk tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Norfolk tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Norfolk Tap Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Garland, Texas Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated August 6, 2019 to include current data

For our Garland water report, we aggregated water quality test data from Garland Water Utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Garland are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Garland Drinking Water

Garland’s drinking water is surface water-sourced, and is purchased from the North Texas Municipal Water District (NTMWD). Water is pumped from Lavon Lake, Jim Chapman Lake, Lake Tawakoni, Lake Texoma, and the East Fork Raw Water Supply Project. Water is treated at one of the NTMWD’s six water treatment plants before being distributed to the City of Garland. Water may be stored in one of eight ground storage tanks or three elevated storage tanks.

Lead In Garland Drinking Water

Lead enters into tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently seen in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and can reach hazardous levels. A recent water quality analysis for Garland revealed a 90th percentile concentration of 3.88 parts per billion. While the Action Level is 15 parts per billion, both the EPACDC, and the American Academy of Pediatrics all recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead for children. In addition, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Garland Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, although monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Garland’s tap water recently averaged 91.2 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These average levels are over 4 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Garland Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter. While these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has stated they have an association with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. EPA regulates two categories of DBPs: Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMS) and Haloacetic Acids 5 (HAA5). The average concentration of TTHMs is 36 parts per billion, and 25 parts per billion for HAA5. For a bit of perspective, the outdated Maximum Contaminant Level for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion and 60 parts per billion for HAA5. 

Use Of Chloramine In Garland Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, the City of Garland’s water is disinfected with chloramine, produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is primarily responsible for what customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine this bad taste will not fade if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Garland use special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

In 2016, the running annual average for chloramines was 2.93 parts per million and the upper detected range was 4.2 parts per million, which is over the Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL) of 4.0 parts per million. It is important to note that while this is above the MRDL, it is not a violation.


Still Have Questions About Garland’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Garland tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Garland tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Garland Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Durham, North Carolina Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated July 31, 2019 to include current data

Our Water Nerds have updated our analysis of Durham, North Carolina drinking water to include the most updated data. Our team has aggregated water quality test data from the City of Durham Department of Water Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Durham are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Durham Drinking Water

Durham gets its drinking water from surface water sources. The two primary sources are Lake Michie and Little River Reservoir. Supplementary water is supplied by Jordan Lake and Teer Quarry. The two treatment plants in Durham are the Williams Water Treatment Plant and the Brown Water Treatment Plant.

Lead In Durham Drinking Water

Lead enters Durham drinking water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water and reaches toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Durham tap water found 90th percentile concentrations of 3 parts per billion. Although the Action Level for lead is 15 ppb, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing safe levels of lead. Of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Durham Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants formed when chlorine-based disinfectants combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. While these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has explicitly stated that they are linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Both regulated types of DBPs (total trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids 5) are elevated in Durham drinking water. 

Use Of Chloramine In Durham Tap Water

While many cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, Durham’s water is disinfected with chloramine, made by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is the frequent culprit when customers report a “bad taste” in their tap water, and unlike chlorine will not fade away if left in the fridge overnight. The recent chloramine running annual average for Durham was 2 parts per million. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that don’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Durham use special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Durham’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Durham tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Durham tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Durham Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Lubbock, Texas Drinking Water


Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated August 5, 2019 to include current data

For our Lubbock water quality assessment, we aggregated water quality test data from the Lubbock Water Department, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes.The water filters that we sell in Lubbock are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Lubbock Drinking Water

Lubbock’s drinking water is a mixture of surface and groundwater. 58% of Lubbock drinking water comes from the Robert County Well Field, 19% from Lake Alan Henry, 13% from Bailey County Well Field, and 10% from Lake Meredith. Water from the Roberts County and Bailey County well fields is supplied from the Ogallala Aquifer. These four sources of water travel 65-160 miles to reach Lubbock.

Arsenic In Lubbock Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Unlike lead which accumulates in distribution pipes, Arsenic originates in source water itself. While Lubbock's is in compliance with EPA standards, consumers should take note that the EPA standards for arsenic balances toxicity against the costs of removing it from drinking water. That being said, the standard is much higher than health experts would advise. According to the most recent report, the highest detected arsenic concentration in Lubbock drinking water is  4 parts per billion. We strongly encourage that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.

Lead In Lubbock Drinking Water

Lead enters consumer tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Lubbock found a 90th percentile concentration of less than 1.5 parts per billion, with an upper range detection of 8.6 parts per billion. While the Action Level is 15 parts per billion, both the EPA and CDC recognize that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead for children. In addition, federal regulations cannot possibly take into account levels measured at an individual tap.

Chromium 6 In Lubbock Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, while monitored, is not regulated by the EPA. Lubbock’s tap water quality recently averaged 932 parts per trillion for chromium 6. Average levels are 46 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Lubbock Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not well regulated, the EPA has concluded that they are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. DBPs in Lubbock’s tap water had a 2016 average of 49.4 parts per billion.

Use Of Chloramine In Lubbock Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Lubbock's Drinking Water is disinfected with chloramine, which is produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is primarily responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine this bad taste will not fade if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Lubbock uses special filtration media that is purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

In 2016, while the running annual average for chloramines was 2.9 ppm, the upper detected range was 4.4 ppm, which is over the Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level of 4.0 ppm. It is important to note that this is not a violation.


Still Have Questions About Lubbock’s Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water. The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Lubbock tap water, but all of our home water filtration systems provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Lubbock tap water quality, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Lubbock Tap Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found With Greensboro Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of Greensboro's tap and drinking water, we aggregated water quality test data from the Greensboro Water Resources Department, the water provider for Greensboro, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Greensboro are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Greensboro Drinking Water

Greensboro’s tap and drinking water comes from surface water from three watersheds reservoirs. There are two treatment plants; the Townsend Water Treatment Plant is located northeast of Greensboro and processes water from Lake Townsend, while the Mitchell Water Treatment Plant is located in central Greensboro and treats water from Lake Brandt. The third reservoir, Lake Higgins, is used to refill Lake Brandt as water resources demand. All three lakes are located in northern Guilford County, within a protected watershed of the Cape Fear River Basin. Additional water is received from the Randleman Lake via the Piedmont Triad Regional Water Authority.

Lead In Greensboro Drinking Water

Lead is added to Greensboro's drinking water through contact with older lead service pipes and through lead plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail, as recently occurred in Flint, Michigan, lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach hazardous levels. Recent analysis for lead in Greensboro's water found 90% of sampled concentrations below 3 parts per billion. While 98.15% of tested residences were below the Action Level of 15 ppb, and Greensboro is in compliance with all federal regulations, federal regulations can of course not account for levels measured at an individual’s tap. It should be noted that both the EPA and CDC have recognized that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead.

Chromium 6 In Greensboro Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a hazardous metal that is not yet regulated by the EPA. In 2016, Greensboro's water quality averaged 110 parts per trillion for chromium 6. While not regulated, these levels are over 5 times higher than the minimum concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Greensboro Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that are produced when chlorine-based disinfectants are added to the water supply and then combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. These chemicals, while not regulated thoroughly, have been found by the EPA to associate with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. The tap water in Greensboro has recently had moderate levels of DBPs, with a 2016 average of 73 parts per billion (with an average of 45 ppb coming from trihalomethanes).

Use Of Chloramine In Greensboro Tap Water

Although most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, Greensboro’s water is disinfected with chloramine, produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is the primary culprit for what customers often report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine will not dissipate if left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t successfully removing chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Greensboro's water use special filtration media that are specifically built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Greensboro's Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Greensboro tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Greensboro tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This City of Greensboro Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In San Francisco, California Drinking Water

Analies Dyjak, M.A. | Hydroviv Research Analyst
Updated August 16, 2019 to include current data

Our Water Nerds have updated our water quality assessment for San Francisco drinking water. We used the most recent 2019 test data from San Francisco Water, Power & Sewer, the city’s water provider and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and delve into upcoming regulatory changes. The custom water filters that we offer at Hydroviv are optimized with San Francisco's water quality in mind.

Source Of San Francisco Drinking Water

San Francisco source water originates from the Tuolmne River, and is stored in the Hetch Hecthy Reservoir. Water from the Hetch Hetchy is supplemented with water from local watersheds such as the Alameda, Peninsula, San Andreas, and Pilarcitos reservoirs. Emergency supplies include Lake Eleanor, Lake Cherry and tributaries of the Lower Cherry Aqueduct, Early Intake Reservoir and Tuolumne River.

Lead In San Francisco Drinking Water

Lead enters tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbingWhen corrosion control measures put in place by the municipality fail (like what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. 10% of samples analyzed for lead are 6 parts per billion in San Francisco drinking water. Though in compliance with federal regulations, EPACDC and American Academy of Pediatrics all acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead for children. 

Chromium 6 In San Francisco Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA.  In recent years, San Francisco’s drinking and tap water has averaged 90 parts per trillion for Chromium 6. For a bit of perspective, Chromium 6 levels in San Francisco's tap water quality are 4.55 times higher than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In San Francisco Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter. EPA regulates two categories of DBPs: Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and Haloacetic Acids 5 (HAA5). Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, EPA discloses that high levels of disinfection byproducts are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Chloramine Used To Disinfect San Francisco Drinking Water

While most municipalities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, San Francisco’s water is disinfected with chloramine (produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia). Chloramine is primarily responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine does not dissipate if a container of water is left in the refrigerator overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t do a great job removing chloramine, but the filters that we design and build at Hydroviv for San Francisco uses special filtration media that is purposefully designed to remove chloramine as well.

Still Have Questions?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water.  The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for San Francisco, but all of our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants.

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for San Francisco tap water, have questions about our San Francisco water quality report, or questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat. We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople).

Please Share This San Francisco Tap Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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