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Problems We Found In Lincoln's Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   

For our assessment of the city of Lincoln' water quality, we aggregated water quality test data from Lincoln Water System, the water provider for Lincoln, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Lincoln are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Lincoln Drinking Water

Lincoln’s tap water is groundwater-sourced from wells under the Platte River near Ashland. This water is directly influenced by the surface water above. A water treatment plant is located in Ashland, which treats the water before sending it on to customers in Lincoln. There are additional wells located in Lincoln, but water has not been pumped from them during the 2011-2016 period.

Arsenic In Lincoln Drinking Water

Arsenic is a dangerous heavy metal known to cause cancer, among other health problems. Arsenic originates in source water.  While the city of Lincoln' water quality is in compliance with EPA water quality standards, consumers should take note that the EPA standard balances toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water; the standard is therefore quite high. Lincoln’s most recent tap water quality report listed arsenic concentrations ranging from 6.7-7.8 parts per billion.  We strongly advocate that tap water with more than 1 part per billion be treated to remove arsenic, especially if there are children in the home.  

Very High Levels Of Lead In Lincoln Drinking Water

Lead enters into tap water through aging lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail, such as in Flint, Michigan, lead leaches into drinking water and reaches toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Lincoln NE water quality found a 90th percentile concentration of 4.41 parts per billion, with samples ranging up to a staggering 403 ppb. The Action Level for lead, for reference, is 15 ppb. EPA and CDC have stated that there is no such thing as a safe level of lead, and of course, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap.  For perspective, the American Academy Of Pediatrics recommends that children not drink from taps with lead levels over 1 ppb.

Chromium 6 In Lincoln Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a hazardous metal not fully regulated by the EPA. Lincoln’s tap water recently averaged 39 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are nearly 2 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Lincoln Drinking Water

DBPs are a kind of emerging contaminants that are formed when chlorine-based disinfectants (added to the water supply to keep it safe) then combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not well regulated, EPA has explicitly stated that they have been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. Lincoln’s tap water has recently found DBPs averaging 49.5 parts per billion.

Use Of Chloramine In Lincoln Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Lincoln’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is made by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is the frequent culprit for what customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine will not dissipate if left in the fridge overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that don’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Lincoln use special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.


Still Have Questions About Lincoln's Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Lincoln tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Lincoln tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Lincoln NE Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Lexington, Kentucky Drinking Water

Emma Schultz M.S. | Scientific Contributor
Updated July 31, 2019 to include current data

We've updated our assessment of Lexington drinking water to include the most current data. Our Water Nerds aggregated water quality test data from Kentucky American Water, the water provider for Lexington, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference contaminant data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in Lexington are optimized with these issues in mind.

Lexington's Drinking Water Sources

Lexington tap water is sourced from surface water. Water comes from the Kentucky River where it runs through Owen County south of Lexington, and from the Jacobson Reservoir, which is located in Fayette County.  According to source water assessments, the Kentucky River is most vulnerable to contamination from agricultural runoff, while the Jacobson Reservoir is most vulnerable to urban storm water runoff.

Chromium 6 Levels In Lexington Tap Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not presently regulated by the EPA. Lexington's tap and drinking water quality has recently averaged 76 parts per trillion for chromium 6. These levels are nearly 4 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Lexington Drinking Water

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are halogenated emerging contaminants that occur when chlorine-based disinfectants are added to the water supply and subsequently combine with naturally-occurring organic matter.  These chemicals are not well-regulated, but the EPA has stated that they have been linked to increased risks of bladder cancer, and kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. The highest level detected in Lexington drinking water was 110 parts per billion, which exceeds the 80 part per billion Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) The highest level of haloacetic acids was 54.2 parts per billion, which is just under the MCL of 60 parts per billion. 

Chloramine Is Used To Disinfect Lexington Tap Water

Although most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, Lexington’s water is disinfected with chloramine, which is generated by combining chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is often responsible for what customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and, unlike with chlorine, this taste does not dissipate if water is left in the fridge overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t successfully remove the chloramine taste, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Lexington use special filtration media purpose-built to remove chloramine.

Still Have Questions About Lexington Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above (lead) are part of what we take into consideration when we optimize water filters specifically for Lexington tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Lexington tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Lexington Drinking Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Minneapolis Drinking Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor      
Updated August 5, 2019 to include current data

For our 2019 assessment of Minneapolis drinking water, our team aggregated the most recent available information. We analyzed data from the City of Minneapolis Public Works, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. Our Water Nerds then cross reference Minneapolis water quality data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature.

Minneapolis Source Water

Minneapolis sources its drinking water from a mix of surface and groundwater. About 25% of Minneapolis water is sourced from the Mississippi River, and the remaining 75% comes from local groundwater sources. 

Chromium 6 In Minneapolis Drinking Water

Chromium 6 (also known as hexavalent chromium) is a highly toxic metal that not currently regulated by the EPA. Minneapolis tap water concentrations in Minneapolis have recently averaged 288 parts per trillion for Chromium 6. For a bit of context, these levels are over 10 times higher than the levels considered to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are a category of halogenated emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. Although these chemicals are not yet tightly-regulated, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports that high levels are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. While Minneapolis drinking water quality is in compliance with EPA regulations, Haloacetic Acid (HAA5) concentrations are on the high end (up to 28.4 ppb in the most recent report), and Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) were as high as 28.7 ppb.

Chloramine

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Minneapolis tap water is disinfected with chloramine, which is produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is typically responsible for what customers often report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine, does not dissipate if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Minneapolis' water quality uses special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

Lead

Lead is a toxic heavy metal that can a major negative impact on the development of infants and children. While the city is currently in compliance with federal regulations, EPA, CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics all acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead for children. In comparison to the rest of the US, citywide lead concentrations in Minneapolis are relatively low, but roughly 10% of the sampled taps are over 3.8 parts per billion. However, the concentrations measured at an individual tap can be much higher, particularly if your home has plumbing that contains lead pipes, fixtures, or valves.

Still Have Questions?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Minneapolis tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, lead, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

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Problems We Found With St. Louis Tap Water

Emma Schultz, M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated to include 2019 water quality data

Our Water Nerds have updated our assessment of St. Louis drinking water to include the most recent available data. To do this, our team looked at water quality test data from the City of St. Louis Water DivisionU.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. Our Water Nerds then cross-reference these data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature, and look at upcoming regulatory changes. The water filters that we sell in St. Louis are optimized with these water problems in mind.

Mississippi River: Source Of St. Louis Tap Water

St. Louis tap water is surface water-sourced. The Howard Bend water treatment facility draws water from the Mississippi River, and the Chain of Rocks treatment plant draws primarily from the Missouri River, though its location south of the confluence of Missouri and Mississippi Rivers means it sources Mississippi River water as well.

Alarming Levels Of Chromium 6 In St. Louis Tap Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that, despite its toxicity, is not currently regulated by the EPA. St. Louis tap water has recently averaged a startling 1600 parts per trillion for chromium 6. To better understand why this should be of concern to St. Louis residents, these levels are 63 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk. Because chromium 6 comes from the water supply (not the pipes), we HIGHLY recommend that all St. Louis residents take steps to filter chromium 6 from their water. Boiling or freezing water does not remove chromium 6.

Lead In St. Louis Tap Water

Lead enters into tap water through aged lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (as recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in St. Louis found the 90th percentile of sampled concentrations at 0.99 parts per billion. While the city is in compliance with federal regulations, EPACDC and American Academy of Pediatrics, all acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead for children. In addition to this, federal regulations also cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap. We encourage St. Louis residents that live in older homes to get their water tested by an accredited laboratory. This article gives homeowners guidance on how to test for lead in the home.  

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In St. Louis Tap Water

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are a type of emerging contaminants that occur when chlorine-based disinfectants, added to the water supply, react with naturally-occurring organic matter found in the water. While these chemicals are not well-regulated, the EPA has stated that they have been linked to increased risks of bladder cancer, and kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. St. Louis tap water has recently had moderately high levels of the two regulated classes of DBPs (total trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids 5). 

Chloramine Is Used In St. Louis Tap Water Instead of Chlorine

While most cities use chlorine as their primary disinfectant, St. Louis water is disinfected with chloramine (a product of chlorine and ammonia). Chloramine is primarily responsible for what customers often report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and unfortunately does not dissipate if a container of water is left in the fridge overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t adequately remove chloramine, but the water filters that Hydroviv builds for St. Louis use special filtration media that are purpose-built to remove chloramine as well.

Still Have Questions About St. Louis Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can design and build the best water filter for St. Louis tap water, but all of our water filters provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

Please Share This St. Louis Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found In Fort Worth's Tap Water

Kezia Snipe | Research Analyst   

For Hydroviv’s assessment of Fort Worth's drinking water, we aggregated water quality test data from City of Fort Worth Water Department, the city’s water provider and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze.  We cross reference these data with toxicity studies in the scientific and medical literature, and delve into upcoming regulatory changes.  The water filters that we offer  our users in Forth Worth are optimized with these figures in mind.

Source Of Fort Worth Drinking Water

Fort Worth uses surface water from Lake Worth, Eagle Mountain Lake, Lake Bridgeport, Richland Chambers Reservoir, Cedar Creek Lake, Lake Benbrook and the Clear Fork Trinity River. Fort Worth owns Lake Worth.  

Arsenic In Fort Worth Drinking Water

Arsenic is a toxic metal that is known to cause cancer and other health issues. Unlike lead, which leaches into water from plumbing, arsenic comes from the source water itself. Fort Worth's water quality is in compliance with the EPA’s loose water quality standards but it is very important to point out that EPA’s standard balances the toxicity against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water at the municipal level.  The most recent Fort Worth water quality report reported an arsenic concentration up to 1.4 parts per billion for the city. Hydroviv recommends that anyone with more than 1 part per billion take steps to remove arsenic from their water, especially if children are in the home.   

Lead In Fort Worth Drinking Water

Lead enters tap water through older lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures put in place by the municipality fail (like what recently happened in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into the drinking water, and can reach dangerous levels. Currently, 10% of Ft. Worth water samples analyzed for lead revealed concentrations of 3.2 parts per billion. Though Fort Worth's water quality is in compliance with federal regulations, EPA and CDC both acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead, and federal regulations do not take into account levels measured at an individual tap.  

Chromium 6 In Fort Worth Drinking Water

Chromium 6 (also known as hexavalent chromium) is a highly toxic metal that is not regulated by the EPA.  In recent years, Fort Worth’s drinking water has averaged 54 parts per trillion for Chromium 6. For a bit of perspective, these levels are 2.7 times higher than the concentration determined to have negligible impact on cancer risk

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Fort Worth Drinking Water

DBPs are a category of emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants react with naturally-occurring organic matter.  Although these chemicals are not currently regulated very well, the EPA website discusses the association between high levels of disinfection byproducts and an increased risk of bladder cancer, as well as kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems.

Chloramine Used To Disinfect Fort Worth Drinking Water

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Ft. Worth's water is disinfected with chloramine (produced by mixing chlorine and ammonia). Chloramine is primarily responsible for what many customers report as the “bad taste” of tap water, and unlike chlorine does not dissipate if a container of water is left in the refrigerator overnight.  Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that doesn’t do a great job removing chloramine, but the filters that we design and build at Hydroviv for Fort Worth uses special filtration media that is purposefully designed to remove chloramine as well.

Still Have Questions About Fort Worth Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each customer's water.  The contaminants that we list above are what we consider to be major “points of emphasis” that we use to build water filters that are built specifically for Fort Worth, but our filters provide broad protection against a wide range of contaminants.

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Fort Worth tap water, or just have questions about water quality in general, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.  We pride ourselves in being a reputable source of information on water quality, and your questions will be answered by scientists, not salespeople (we don't have any salespeople).

Please Share This Fort Worth Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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Problems We Found in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Drinking Water

Emma Schultz M.S. | Scientific Contributor   
Updated on August 2, 2019 to include current data

For our assessment of Pittsburgh's water quality, our Water Nerds aggregated water quality test data from the Pittsburgh Water & Sewer Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as from samples that we collect and analyze. Our team then cross references these data with toxicity studies in scientific and medical literature. The water filters that we sell in Pittsburgh are optimized with these issues in mind.

Source Of Pittsburgh Drinking Water

Pittsburgh tap water originates from surface water. Water is drawn from the Allegheny River before being treated at various treatment facilities. Pittsburgh Water typically treats and distributes 70 million gallons of water every day. 

Lead In Pittsburgh Drinking Water

Pittsburgh has a serious problem with lead in drinking water. Lead enters into home tap water through old lead service pipes and lead-containing plumbing. When corrosion control measures fail (such as the recent crisis in Flint, Michigan), lead leaches into drinking water, and can reach toxic levels. Recent analysis for lead in Pittsburgh found a startling 90th percentile concentration of 20 parts per billion. In addition, 22 of the 161 samples exceeded the Federal Action Level of 15 parts per billion.

It should be noted that Pittsburgh is still in compliance with federal regulations, because “an action level exceedance is not a violation” (see above linked 2016 Water Quality Report). EPACDC and American Academy of Pediatrics all acknowledge that there is no safe level of lead for children. In addition, federal regulations cannot take into account levels measured at an individual tap. Check out this 2016 article for more information on lead contamination in the Pittsburgh water supply.

Chromium 6 In Pittsburgh Drinking Water

Chromium 6 is a highly toxic metal that is not currently regulated by the EPA. Pittsburgh’s tap water has recently averaged 535 parts per trillion for chromium 6. For a bit of context, these levels are over 28 times higher than the concentration determined to have a negligible impact on cancer risk.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) In Pittsburgh Drinking Water

DBPs are a type of halogenated emerging contaminants that form when chlorine-based disinfectants are added to the water supply, and subsequently combine with naturally-occurring organic matter. These chemicals are not yet well-regulated, but the EPA has stated that they have been linked to increased risk of bladder cancer, and kidney, liver, and central nervous system problems. EPA regulates two types of DBPs: Total Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids 5). Pittsburgh’s tap water has recently had moderately high levels of DBPs, and the highest concentration of Trihalomethanes was 123 parts per billion, which exceeds Maximum Contaminant Level of 80 parts per billion. 

Use Of Chloramine In Pittsburgh Tap Water

While most cities use chlorine as the primary disinfectant, Pittsburgh’s water is disinfected with chloramine (which is formed by mixing chlorine and ammonia).  Chloramine is the primary culprit for what many customers report as the “bad taste”of tap water, and unlike chlorine will not dissipate if left in the fridge overnight. Most one-size-fits-all water filters use filtration media that successfully removing chloramine, but the filters that Hydroviv builds for Pittsburgh's water problems use special filtration media that are designed to remove chloramine as well.

Still Have Questions About Pittsburgh's Tap Water?

Hydroviv is a water filtration company that uses water quality data to optimize water filters for each city’s water.  The chemicals that we list above are what we consider to be “points of emphasis” so we can build the best water filter for Pittsburgh tap water, but all of our home filtration water systems provide broad protection against other contaminants commonly found in drinking water (e.g. VOCs, heavy metals [including lead], pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, mercury).

If you’re interested in learning more about water filters that have been optimized for Pittsburgh tap water, feel free to visit www.hydroviv.com, reach out by email (hello@hydroviv.com) or through our live chat.  We also frequently post water-related news on Twitter or Facebook.

Please Share This Pittsburgh Water Quality Article On Social Media With Anyone You Think Would Benefit From The Information!

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